News Letter Vol.12
Kinki University 21st Century COE Program English Site > News Letter Vol.12
A word at the completion of the COE Program

Hidemi Kumai (COE Leader, Fisheries Laboratory)

Our 21st Century COE Program 'Center for Aquaculture Science and Technology for Bluefin Tuna and Other Cultivated Fish' was adopted in 2003 and five years has passed since then. This is the final year of the program.

At this research center, we aim to develop breeding technology through researches on fish maturity, oviposition, initial breeding, nutrition (feed), fish breeding, and diseases in fish and carry out a comprehensive study of all the processes in the fish culture industry, from fish farm environmental conservation to product control, sale and distribution, and economic effects, at industrial-scale fish culture sites, in order to support the culture industry. For this end, we have secured closer coordination between the production sites and researches in special fields in an effort to establish the world's leading center for education and research as a practical model of industry-supporting research. Another important objective of this center is to develop young researchers. At this center, we have employed a total of 36 post-doctoral researchers, have promoted their researches and education, and have strengthened and improved graduate school education in order to develop creative researchers who are familiar with the culture industry in and outside of Japan and are ready for work. Many young researchers have already begun to play an active role in their respective fields.

Under this COE Program, we have accumulated numerous pieces of new knowledge about fish culture in general. In particular, we have attained many achievements with respect to the production to distribution of cultured bluefin tuna. These achievements will be reported in detail by the responsible researchers in final achievement reports etc.

International tuna sources have been decreasing for years and regional fishery control institutions have introduced a series of catch regulations, so the supply of artificially produced tuna has attracted public attention more. In this context, considering the research activities at our site to be timely ones, we have vigorously developed and promoted researches to steadily develop the expanding bluefin tuna culture industry.

In 2002, we succeeded in the full culture of bluefin tuna for the first time in the world. Larvae born and produced at that time became five years old in 2007 and began to spawn on June 28 of the same year. We eventually saw the birth of the third generation of artificially incubated bluefin tuna.

For the development of the bluefin tuna culture industry, a stable supply of artificial seedling is an essential and fundamental condition. If we develop artificial seedling mass production technology which enables us to supply seedling steadily, we would be able to use artificial seedling instead of natural sources, contributing much to the protection of bluefin tuna sources and the development of the culture industry.

After the end of this COE Program, we are determined to continue with our researches vigorously toward the completion of such technology.

This COE Program has been pursued with the support and cooperation of many people. At the end of the program, I would like to sincerely thank these people, hoping to receive their support and advice further.

Summary of the achievements of the Seedling Production and Culture Group

Osamu Murata (Fisheries Laboratory)

The objective of our Group is to establish seedling mass production and advanced culture technologies for bluefin tuna and other fishes while conducting physiological, biochemical, and thremmatological studies of their mature, oviposition and growth, in order to contribute to the improvement of production technology for seedling for culture and release. In this report, I will mainly summarize the achievements in 2006 and 2007.

[Maturity and oviposition]
Three-year-old cultured bluefin tuna
(Amami test site)
In order to investigate the development of the reproductive gland of bluefin tuna cultured at Amami-oshima, we caught 3 to 4 males and females (71kg to 165kg in weight) at intervals of approximately two months. Based on the histological observation of the reproductive gland, we found males which mature in two to three years after birth and suggested that the number of spawning females increases four years after hatch. The reproductive gland index is high in June for both males and females, and there was a four-year-old one whose reproductive gland index reaches approximately 3%. We assume that the maturity of cultured bluefin tuna is promoted by a rise in water temperature in the breeding waters and the prolongation of a high water temperature.

As a study related to the genetic diversity of cultured bluefin tuna and the analysis of spawning parent fish, genetic control for securing genetic soundness and avoiding weakness due to inbreeding is important for sustainable culture of bluefin tuna. Tools necessary for genetic control and information on oviposition patterns have been obtained so far, enabling us to choose oviposition dates on which greater genetic diversity can be expected. Therefore, we assume that these achievements have led to the establishment of groundwork for genetic control in the culture of bluefin tuna.

[Ovum development and gene introduction]
We investigated PGC transfer and entry into the gonad in bluefin tuna and mackerel in order to make donor cell isolation easier and enhance the effect of entry into the reproductive system toward establishing subrogate cultivation methods for preserving the genetic diversity of bluefin tuna. The same phenomenon was observed in mackerel.

We completed a bluefin tuna BAC clone library. So far, we have developed 32 sets of primers which can amplify the polymorphic microsatellite locus. We are now scrutinizing whether we can use them for collective analysis of bluefin tuna. We will analyze more regions to develop a gene map and a breeding marker.

As part of research for the creation of genetically modified red sea bream, genetic modification technology has many advantages as compared with the traditional selective breeding method, e.g., that the characters can be improved substantially in a short term and that a new character can be added. When we examined gene introduction technology using red sea bream, we confirmed the transfer of a gene into the reproductive gland which is expected to be conveyed to the next generation. Therefore, we believe that we have taken one big step toward the establishment of technology for introducing genes into red sea bream in an efficient manner.

[Seedling production]
With a view to elucidating the optimum addition density of Nannochloropsis oculata in initial bluefin tuna breeding, we raised larval bluefin tuna with different densities of Nannochloropsis oculata and investigated their growth and survival during the ten-day period after hatch, in which initial depletion is greatest. When the Nannochloropsis oculata density was one million cells per mL, the full length was significantly highest and the survival rate was high. It was estimated that the optimum addition density of Nannochloropsis oculata is around one million cells per mL, higher than the 300,000 - 500,000 cells per mL selected at seedling production sites.

In the meantime, in order to reduce the initial depletion of larval bluefin tuna by regulating night aeration, we regulated the amount of aeration in a larval bluefin tuna breeding tank at night, measured flow changes with an ultrasonic precision current meter, and examined an appropriate amount of night aeration. As a result, we found that as the amount of night aeration increased, the survival rate rose significantly and the range of upward flow in the tank also became greater. It was assumed that the amount of night aeration in a 500L tank should desirably be set at 900mL per minute in order to reduce initial depletion.

When we investigated why bluefin tuna feed on one another, we found that aggressive behavior increases most when they are starved. We also found that tendency toward cannibalism is further strengthened by the size gap. When we investigated bluefin tuna's response to a checked pattern in order to work out a measure to prevent collision, they exhibited significant escape reactions to a checked pattern written on the wall of the tank.

[Fundamental research on flesh quality improvement]
In our research on fat accumulation and fat tissue formation, we elucidated for the first time the process of fat tissue formation in bluefin tuna in the larval stage. We identified the type of fat accumulated in larval bluefin tuna (the fat class and the formation of fat acids). We isolated the LPL gene which substantially affects fat accumulation in bluefin tuna and analyzed the expression analysis thereof. As a result, we elucidated an outline of the fat accumulation process in the larval stage and the relationship between fat accumulation and feed and the breeding environment, obtaining fundamental knowledge necessary for future development of fat formation control technology.

These are some of our achievements related to bluefin tuna. We have also accumulated research results as to red sea bream, mackerel, grey large-eye bream, grouper, eel, sea eel, etc., which we hope to present sometime in the future.

Summary of the achievements of the Culture Environment Conservation and Source Dynamism Group

Wataru Sakamoto (Fisheries Laboratory)

This Group set three themes when making application. Our achievements are as outline below.

1. Monitoring of the microbiological, physical, and chemical environment of culture sites and the contamination load
We conducted research separately on (A) the relationship between the environment surrounding a marine culture preserve and the chemical load, and (B) the relationship between microbiota in an indoor breeding tank and the larva survival rate. (A) We analyzed variance in phytoplankton photosynthesis and dissolved oxygen (DO) between the seasons and during the day around a marine preserve and elucidated scientific changes and transfer of excrement and leftovers after feeding, and the relationship with variance in microbiota around the preserve. (B) In the indoor breeding experiment, we clarified the almost unknown relationship between bacteria in the breeding tank and the larva survival rate. These achievements are summarized in four reports for academic magazines, two reports which have been accepted and are being printed, and two reports just submitted.

2. Relationship between the form of a culture preserve net and changes in the marine environment.
Waves and tides in the environment change the form of a preserve net, resulting in great stress on fish in the preserve. In order to predict the environmental impact on cultured bluefin tuna, we developed a numerical model (NaLa) for the relationship between the flow and the transformation of a preserve net, applying fluid dynamics. With a view to verifying the validity of this model, we installed wave height, depth, and current velocity meters in a bluefin culture preserve at the Amami test site, measured the form of the preserve in the current, and compared the measurements and the changes in form obtained from the simulation model. As a result, we found that the Nala model can predict the form of a preserve net adequately. The achievements were summarized in four reports for academic magazines.

3. Behavior and feeding of bluefin tuna in a preserve net.
With respect to the behavior of bluefin tuna, we elucidated (1) the relationship between the appearance of school behavior and the development of the optical nervous system, (2) the relationship between swimming capability and resistance as the fish grow, (3) changes in larva density as the fish grow, (4) when the body temperature becomes higher than water temperature, (5) an estimated feeding amount due to variance in the temperature of the abdominal cavity, and (6) the type of feed and variance in the temperature of the abdominal cavity. We summarized (1) and (2) in seven reports for academic magazines, (2) in four reports for academic magazines, (3) in two reports for academic magazines, (4) in a report submitted for publication in an academic magazine, and (5) and (6) in a report for an academic magazine and a report submitted for publication.

Summary of the achievements of the Seedling, Safety, and Processing Group

Yasuyuki Tsukamasa (Graduate School of Agriculture)

Larval bluefin tuna raised with formula feed (upper) and the traditional living feed (lower)
In our research on feed, we developed, for the first time in the world, formula feed for larval bluefin tuna, which had not been developed due to several problems related to the supply of test fish, breeding methods, low preference for fish meal formula feed, and usability. We found that enzyme-processed fish meal (EFM) is more usable than fish meal and that larval bluefin tuna grow very much on formula feed consisting of EFM (64%), salmon egg oil (7.5%), and activated starch (8%). We also found that the growth and survival rate for larval bluefin tuna fed with larval parrot fish are excellent, and we identified phospholipid containing a large quantity of DHA (DHA-PL) as one of the relevant nutrients. When we raised larval bluefin tuna with formula feed including salmon ovary phospholipid containing DHA-PL, growth and the survival rate improved considerably. When we studied the concurrent use of soy phospholipid which is cheaper than salmon ovary phospholipid, we verified its utility. With respect to safety research, total mercury content in the conventional cultured bluefin tuna fed with mackerel stayed at around 0.6ppm, though it is lower than that in wild ones with the same weight. When we cultivated bluefin tuna with sand lance and horse mackerel, we were able to produce fish whose mercury content is lower than the provisional standard of 0.4ppm. We also found that total mercury content in all the edible parts can be estimated from the fin muscle and blood, which are usually thrown away and that mercury content varies from season to season and this variation is affected more by water temperature than by the mercury intake. With respect to research on flesh quality, we investigated the difference in flesh quality between fully cultured and wild bluefin tunas, finding that glycogen content in both back and abdominal flesh is considerably higher in fully cultured ones. We developed technology for inhibiting the progress of metmyoglobin formation by reducing glycogen content in the flesh of fully cultured bluefin tuna by putting them on fast for two to six days. We investigated how fat in flesh and the composition of fat acids change as fully cultured bluefin tuna grows, finding that fat content increases but the composition of fat acids does not change much and that DHA and EPA contents in them are close to those in wild bluefin tuna.



Summary of the achievements of the Economics and Distribution Group

Seiichiro Ono (Graduate School of Agriculture)

The challenges for the Economics and Distribution Group were to investigate and give an entire picture of industrial infrastructure for the bluefin tuna culture industry, which had long been in the black box, to identify challenges for bluefin tuna culture management, and to give a vision of the future of the fish culture industry. Our achievements will be summarized in a paper entitled 'Distribution and economics of cultured bluefin tuna — An approach from a food system theory —', and we think we almost dealt with the challenges, though not fully. Following is a brief wrap-up of our achievements.

Ten years ago, we could not foresee that social needs for cultured bluefin tuna would increase to the extent that they are offered to the general public at supermarkets and sushi-go-round restaurants. Cultured bluefin tuna is no less marketable than the wild one. An examination of culture companies shows that new companies, big or small, have been entering into the market one after another and cultured bluefin tuna is highly economical than yellowtail and red sea bream, which have not been selling much for years. Of course, there are many problems such as the recent popular topic international tuna management, the risk of natural disasters, and the relationship between fishery rights and licenses and the large scale of cultivation, but when we examine future supply-demand relations around the world, we could say that the bluefin tuna culture industry has potential for growth and profit.

If artificial seedling being developed under the leadership of Kinki University is spread, the landscape may totally change. Anyway, the tuna culture industry has potential for bringing a new phase to the fish farm industry in general.

Progress and achievement of the cross-group project

Shigeru Miyashita (Cross-group project committee member, Fisheries Laboratory)

At this research center, we launched four projects so that the activities of the research groups will be coordinated systematically to contribute directly to the development of the culture industry.

(1) Development of a bluefin tuna culture technology manual (all the groups)

(2) Development of environmentally friendly seedling production technology (Environment and Seedling Production Groups)

(3) Development of formula feed for bluefin tuna (Feed and Nutrition and Culture Groups)

(4) Research on the aptitude of crossbred red sea bream (female) × black sea bream (male) for cultivation in South Korea (Feed and Nutrition and Culture Groups)

The research groups worked diligently on these products as outlined below.

Campus of University Malaysia Sabah, with which we have an overseas academic agreement and is conducting a joint research
Morning assembly at the hatchery of the University Malaysia Sabah Borneo Marine Research Institute
Observing the maturity of carpet cod at the Borneo Marine Research Institute
Project (1) was launched in 2004 to scientifically establish culture technology for bluefin tuna, for which cultivation technology had been developed through experience and trial and error since this fish is large and hard to handle and therefore comparative breeding experiments are difficult to do. In the first year, we started an experiment at the test sites in Amami and Oshima in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture to examine the place of culture and the preserve sizes (35m and 16m in diameter), but almost all of the test fish were killed in typhoon No. 18, which hit the Amami region in September of the same year, and we were forced to suspend the experiment. Next year, in 2005, this experiment was resumed, but soon thereafter, many collision deaths occurred due to a series of thunders (especially in the small preserve) and we could not fulfill the intended purpose except that the Behavior Group obtained valuable knowledge as to 'The preserve size and variance in swimming behavior'. In 2006, the average weight as of the start of the experiment (July) was 10kg, greater than we expected, and mortality during the transfer from the original preserve to the test preserve exceeded 30%, so we were forced to suspend the experiment. 2007 is the last year of the program and we elected not to conduct an experiment as it is difficult to analyze test results by the end of the year. We have realized again how difficult it is to do culture experiments on this species.

Project (2) started in 2005. This is a joint research with University Malaysia Sabah, with which Kinki University has an academic agreement. The objective of this study is to develop drug-free, environmentally friendly seedling production technology, in particular, to develop breeding water control technology by a microbial environment approach instead of the traditional one. Since this research centers on microbes, there was another objective, i.e., the development of seedling production technology for fish species which are small at the larval stage and difficult to breed with rotifer (small-larva types).

In this joint study between Wakayama and Borneo Marine Research Institute in Malaysia, we obtained knowledge about the dynamism of microbes in a larva breeding tank, the flow of substances, and the microalgal control of bacterial biota. And through the examination of initial feed for fishes which are highly difficult to breed, we acquired knowledge as to the possibility of using microbes as initial feed and succeeded in grey large-eye bream seedling production for the first time.

Project (3) had been one of the key issues related to the development of bluefin tuna culture technology, from the onset. As was already reported by the Feed and Nutrition Group, now that our research and development of feed for bluefin tuna finally went on track and we obtained patents, this project was initiated in 2006 together with Project (4). We have tried enzyme-processed fish meal and have improved the ingredient formulation design, and the practical application of the formula feed has finally come into sight. Now we need to reduce the cost.

Project (4) is a joint research with Chonnam National University in South Korea, with which we have an overseas academic agreement. In South Korea, they were searching for new fish species for marine culture since devastating damage is often incurred, including mass mortality in red sea bream in cold winter. Chonnam National University, finding the crossbred fish developed by Kinki University to be prospective, requested us to introduce it to South Korea. This species does not have reproductive capability and does not grow as much as red sea bream, but is highly resistant against low temperatures, low seawater specific gravity, and low dissolved oxygen and is thus considered to have high potential for contributing to South Korea as a new fish species for cultivation. In the first year, this project did not go well partly because South Korea was not able to make arrangements to accept larva in a timely manner, but from an experiment in 2007, we obtained results that suggest high prospectivity.

This crossbred species was not popular in the Japanese market due to its color. However, since it is a crossbreed of red sea bream and a more omnivorous species, black sea bream, there is the possibility of the rate of replacement with vegetable ingredients being raised. This is being established by the researches of the Feed and Nutrition Group. As the price for fish meal, used as the main ingredient of formula feed, is soaring, this crossbreed may become more important as a fish for culture in Japan, depending on the food situation, so this is one of the important researches which should be continued.

These projects will end this year as COE researches. However, all of them are important for future fish cultivation and we are determined to continue these researches. We hope for the continued support and cooperation of the people concerned.

Report on Asahi-University Partners Symposium 'Bluefin tuna opening up the future'
(sponsored by Kinki University and Asahi Shimbun Company)

Mitsuru Eguchi (Symposium coordinator, Graduate School of Agriculture)

Introduction
Asahi-University Partners Symposium 'Bluefin tuna opening up the future' (sponsored by Kinki University and Asahi Shimbun Company) was held on October 27, 2007 at the Kinki University November Hall (Higashi-osaka City, Osaka Prefecture). This symposium (APS), for which host universities are publicly solicited, was started one year ago by the Osaka headquarters of Asahi Shimbun Company desires to help universities to communicate their research and education activities to the general public in intelligible terms. Asahi Shimbun Company solicits applications from universities for each six-month period and its selection committee consisting of internal and external experts determines the host university. Kinki University was selected for the 2007 second half symposium. Around 20 universities sent applications for this symposium, of which three, including us, were chosen.

We sent our application in May and were selected in July. Later, we frequently met the reporters of the Science and Medicine Group, Social Department of Asahi Shimbun Company and the secretariat of the Kinki University head office, the Graduate School of Agriculture, and the Fisheries Laboratory to make detailed arrangements. The agenda for panel discussion were drawn up by Eguchi, who prepared the application, and Professor Takii of the Fisheries Laboratory made arrangements for a bluefin tuna tasting party and an exhibition. The symposium consisted of two parts, that is, a basic report and a lecture, and panel discussion.

On October 27 (Saturday), we received 920 participants despite the bad weather. The Osaka headquarters of Asahi Shimbun Company announced this symposium one month before, in its September 28 morning edition to solicit for general participants. Almost 1,000 applications were received from the general public. According to the APS secretariat of Asahi Shimbun Company, this figure was one of the largest in the history of APS. It showed how much the general public was interested in the full culture of bluefin tuna. It is quite unlikely that 1,000 people participate in research symposiums held at universities. It would thus usually be necessary to invite university students and graduate students, but as far as this symposium is concerned, there was no need for such bothersome effort. Rather, we had to consider what to do if the audience is too large to be accommodated in the Kinki University November Hall.

Basic lecture
In the former part, Hidemi Kumai, Professor and COE Leader (Kinki University Director and Fisheries Laboratory Leader) gave a basic report, talking about the problems with bluefin tuna culture and how Kinki University solved these problems before it achieved the full culture of the fish. He also said that Kinki University is determined to pursue bluefin tuna researches further in an effort to replace fish for culture with artificially incubated larva step by step, which do not affect the natural sources. The basic report lasted about 40 minutes, and I was impressed to see the audience of almost 1,000 listen very interestedly to the stories based on the actual experience of the good speaker.

After the basic report, a lecture (about 40 minutes) was delivered by Sakana-kun, Associate Professor of Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology and illustrator who often appears on television. Drawing pictures, he talked about the exciting side to the ecology of various fishes, including bluefin tuna and kindai bred by Kinki University, and the preciousness of life. He is a very good speaker and has ample knowledge of fish, and everybody in the hall, from child to adult, listened pleasantly and laughed at his lecture.

Panel discussion
In the latter two-hour part, Eguchi, as the coordinator and chair, discussed various topics related to bluefin tuna culture with five specialists. The panel included Naozumi Miyabe (Director of Temperate Tuna Source Department, National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries, Fisheries Research Agency), Yoko Mizuno (Leafearth), Hidechika Yoshinaga (former Mayor of Setouchi Town, Amami-oshima), Shigeru Miyashita (Professor of the Kinki University Fisheries Laboratory), and Sakana-kun. Mr. Miyabe is a specialist of bluefin tuna and other wild tuna sources and takes part in ICCAT (International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas) and WCPFC (Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean) as a Japanese expert member. Ms. Mizuno received an organic inspection license from IOIA (Internatinal Organic Inspectors Association) in the U.S., established Japan Organic Inspectors Association in 1997, and is engaged in guidance about organic inspection techniques and in the spread of organic foods. She is the leader in food traceability in Japan. Mr. Yoshinaga, former Mayor of Setouchi Town, Amami-oshima, took interest in the culture of bluefin tuna early on and contributed as a regional leader to regional development.

The panel discussion was reported in detail in one full page in the November 4, 2007 Asahi Shimbun morning edition. The headings given in the article were, by order of appearance, 'Full culture as a supplement to the source', 'Same quality as wild one with improved feed', 'Safety certification should also be introduced for fish', and 'Research on how to keep the sea clean'. Every panelist's discussion was very good and the panel discussion covered a wide range of themes, including tuna sources and ecology, food culture, and the safety of cultured tuna.

Tasting party
After the end of the symposium, we held a bluefin tuna tasting party. Two Kindai tunas fully cultured at Kinki University were dissected and offered to the participants. Everybody was surprised at the good taste. Of course, it was also offered to the panelists and Asahi Shimbun reporters. We are sure that those who tasted it felt 'Seeing is believing'.

Conclusion
Almost 1,000 general people applied for this symposium and we actually received 920 participants at Kinki University. We should note the total support of the administration department of Kinki University, especially the general affairs department of the head office, the administration department of the Graduate School of Agriculture, and the administration department of the Fisheries Laboratory. Without their help, we could not have finished this large-scale symposium with success. We sincerely appreciate their great support.

Report on the 2007 Kinki University 21st Century COE Program Results Report Meeting 'Toward the development of the bluefin tuna culture industry'

Kenji Takii (COE Symposium Committee, Fisheries Laboratory)

In this final year of the Kinki University COE Program 'Center for Aquaculture Science and Technology for Bluefin Tuna and Other Cultivated Fish', we held an results report meeting from 13:00 to 16:50 on December 15, 2007 at the Higashi Osaka Campus November Hall, Small Hall in order to give the participants a whole, intelligible picture of the valuable research achievements attained so far and have them fully understand and exchange opinions about bluefin tuna culture in the future. Satoshi Munakata, Vice President, gave an opening speech, talking about the significance of the achievements that have been attained solely by this center and his expectation of the center's contribution to the world. Then, Hidemi Kumai, COE Leader and Fisheries Laboratory Leader, gave an overview of the center's achievements and talked about a vision of the future of bluefin tuna cultivation. The first achievement report was 'Mercury content in cultured bluefin tuna: The actualities and the effort to reduce it' by Associate Professor Masafumi Ando, Food Safety, Processing, and Animal Feed Group. After the participants gained a full understanding of the safety of cultured bluefin tuna, we moved to the underground co-op cafeteria to taste 'Kindai tuna'. The offered Kindai bluefin tuna (70kg) was favorably received, and all the fresh slices were finished within half an hour. The subsequent reports included 'Self-cleaning capability of fish farm waters and environmental conservation' by Professor Mitsuru Eguchi of the Environmental Conservation and Source Dynamism Group, 'Changes in the body temperature of cultured bluefin tuna and swimming and feeding' by Professor Wataru Sakamoto of the same group, 'Maturity of bluefin tuna' by Instructor Manabu Seoka of the Seedling Production and Culture Group, 'Bluefin tuna seedling production: Causes of mass mortality and preventive measures' by Associate Professor Yasunori Ishibashi of the same group, 'Bluefin tuna culture business system' by Associate Professor Ken Hidaka of the Economics and Distribution Group, 'Problems and prospects for the bluefin tuna culture industry, especially in Japan' by Professor Seiichiro Ono of the same group, 'Results of the cross-group research project' by Professor Shigeru Miyashita of the Cross-Group Project, and 'Development of formula feed for bluefin tuna and the verification of its practical applicability' by Professor Kenji Takii of the same project. After each report, the 150 participants, who crowed the hall, asked many questions and exchanged opinions briskly, and this final COE symposium ended in a great atmosphere. Lastly, Professor Hiromi Ohta (Special Director of Fisheries, Graduate School of Agriculture) gave a closing speech, expressing his sincere appreciation to those who have supported this program and his determination to create and develop research centers further. The 2007 Kinki University 21st Century COE Program Results Report Meeting ended with success.